Thursday, July 23, 2020

Can Depression Turn Into Bipolar Disorder

Can Depression Turn Into Bipolar Disorder Depression Types Print Can Depression Turn Into Bipolar Disorder? By Nancy Schimelpfening Nancy Schimelpfening, MS is the administrator for the non-profit depression support group Depression Sanctuary. Nancy has a lifetime of experience with depression, experiencing firsthand how devastating this illness can be. Learn about our editorial policy Nancy Schimelpfening Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Daniel B. Block, MD on January 29, 2020 twitter linkedin Daniel B. Block, MD, is an award-winning, board-certified psychiatrist who operates a private practice in Pennsylvania. Learn about our Medical Review Board Daniel B. Block, MD Updated on February 11, 2020 Bipolar Disorder Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Causes Treatment Living With In Children Your Rights dragana991 / Getty Images In This Article Table of Contents Expand Why Misdiagnosis Happens Complications of Misdiagnosis Reducing Misdiagnosis View All Bipolar disorder and depression share many of the same symptoms, but there are several key differences between the conditions. Depression (sometimes referred to as unipolar depression) and bipolar disorder (or bipolar depression) are two distinct conditions that need to be treated differently. Its very important that a person gets the correct diagnosis so they can receive proper treatment.?? Unfortunately, it can be difficult to tell the difference between the conditions, and misdiagnosis can happen. While clinical depression cannot evolve or turn into bipolar disorder, a person who was previously diagnosed with depression may find out that they actually have a type of bipolar disorder.?? It can be difficult to cope with a new or unexpected diagnosis, but having an accurate diagnosis is necessary to ensure the condition is treated properly. How Manic Depression Became Bipolar Disorder Why Misdiagnosis Happens While there are some characteristic features of each condition, many symptoms of bipolar disorder and depression overlap. When people have both conditions at the same time, or another factor such as substance use, making an accurate diagnosis can be challenging. Symptoms of Clinical Depression Verywell / Joshua Seong Although there are different types of depression, which can have unique characteristics, there are some symptoms that most people with depression feel at one time or another, such as: Feeling profoundly sad, hopeless, or emptyGetting angry, irritated, or frustrated easilySleeping too much (known as hypersomnia) or having insomniaPoor concentration or trouble focusingNot feeling hungry or overeatingA lack of interest in hobbies, work, socializingLow or no sex driveSelf-harm, suicidal thoughts or attempts Typically, a person must have symptoms every day for two weeks or longer to be diagnosed with depression. People with depression may also be likely to have comorbid anxiety disorders. People with bipolar disorder can experience anxiety as well, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).?? Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder in which a person experiences alternating periods of depression with symptoms similar to unipolar depression and periods of mania.  Periods of mania are defined by elevated mood and high energy. While in a manic state, a person can feel very good.  Compared to feelings of depression, manic symptoms may not be especially troubling. Manic episodes can also be infrequent, with gaps as long as several years occurring in between them. When symptoms do occur, they can be mild. Symptoms of mania may include: Feeling restless, increased activity or energyEuphoria, excitement, big ideas (grandiosity)Having trouble focusing, getting distracted, thinking about many different thingsAggression, getting angry or irritated easilySleeping less but still having energyIncreased sex driveDelusions, hallucinations (severe mania) In some cases, a person with bipolar depression may not mention manic symptoms to a doctor or therapist unless, or until, they become severe. Types of Bipolar Its important to know that there are two types of bipolar disorder: bipolar 1 and bipolar 2. While the symptoms of each type are similar, they differ in frequency and duration. Verywell / Hugo Lin Bipolar 1 disorder typically involves at least one major depressive episode. How its different from depression is that people with bipolar disorder have also experienced at least one manic episode. In bipolar 1, people may alternate between periods of depression and mania. In bipolar 2 disorder, a person may not experience mania. Rather, they may have a lesser form (hypomania) interspersed with depression. When symptoms are subtle, people may not realize they are experiencing mania. The lows of depression may be more obvious or recognizable, which can contribute to a misdiagnosis of depression. People with either type of bipolar disorder can experience the following symptoms, depending on whether they are experiencing a manic or depressive phase. How to Recognize a Manic Episode Overlapping Symptoms There are many symptoms that are common to depression and bipolar disorder. When a person with a type of bipolar disorder is experiencing a depressive episode, it can look (and feel) very much like a classic bout of depression. People with depression or bipolar disorder can experience low mood, trouble sleeping, changes in appetite, and problems focusing. They are also at risk of self-harming, including suicide. Individuals with bipolar disorder often have issues with excessive sleep and overeating, which can help distinguish between MDD and bipolar disorder. One of the primary ways to distinguish bipolar disorder from depression is the presence of manic symptoms, but a person may seek treatment for their depressive symptoms before they have experienced a manic episode. Sometimes, people do not recognize that they have had an episode of maniaâ€"especially with a more subtle, hypomanic episode. Symptoms and Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder How Substance Use Can Affect Diagnosis Substance misuse can complicate mental illness diagnosis in a number of ways. A person who is using substances such as alcohol or drugs may exhibit behaviors or symptoms that look like bipolar disorder. Misdiagnosis can occur if a provider does not know the person is using substances and attributes symptoms related to use with bipolar disorder. But some research has suggested bipolar disorder may be misdiagnosed even when a clinician is aware of a persons history of substance use.?? Alternatively, people who are using drugs or alcohol may not be correctly diagnosed with bipolar disorder if their symptoms are attributed to substance use rather than underlying bipolar disorder. Substance use disorders frequently co-occur with many mental illnesses, including bipolar disorder and depression. Why Mental Health Disorders Co-Exist With Substance Use Complications of Misdiagnosis One of the potential complications of misdiagnosis is that bipolar disorder and depression require different treatments. Unfortunately, antidepressants, the treatment of choice for depression, may not work for people with bipolar disorder. In fact, when people with bipolar disorder take certain antidepressant medications, their symptoms can become worse. Their mood may become unstable and they may have an increase in the frequency of manic episodes. If F has not yet had a manic episode, these medications may trigger them to experience one. Rather than antidepressants, most people with bipolar disorder need treatment with mood-stabilizing drugs, such as lithium. Reducing the Risk of Misdiagnosis Clinicians can take several steps to ensure they are making an accurate diagnosis. The risk of misdiagnosis is still present, but it can be reduced.?? If you are working with a doctor or mental health professional, there are a few approaches to your assessment they may use to help them provide the most accurate diagnosis possible. History Taking A doctor or mental health professional will start by asking you about your symptoms. As it can be difficult for people to explain their feelings or note patterns, it can also be helpful for them to talk to your loved ones, as they may have noticed changes in your behavior or made other observations about your moodâ€"some of which you may not even be aware of. Clinicians may make a special point to ask about the symptoms associated with mania, such as elevated mood, irritability, or reckless behavior. They may also ask about a family history of mental illness. If a person has a first-degree relative with bipolar disorder or a history of manic episodes, they are at a higher risk for bipolar disorder. If someone has not been formally diagnosed but experienced a manic episode after starting an antidepressant, that may also indicate bipolar disorder rather than depression. Your doctor will likely ask questions about the onset of symptoms. The symptoms of bipolar disorder tend to start abruptly and make come on earlier (teens or early 20s). Depression, on the other hand, may be more gradual and can develop any timeâ€"even in childhood. People with bipolar disorder also tend to experience change or recovery of symptoms (from low mood to feeling better, for example) more quickly than people with depression. In general, people with depression do not experience alternating moodsâ€"they feel low most or all of the time. These bouts of depression also tend to last for long periods of time, whereas people with bipolar disorder may have shorter bouts of depression. Diagnostic Tools The Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale, and the Hypomanic Personality Scale are some of the diagnostic instruments used to screen for bipolar disorder.?? These tools focus on questions about potential mania and hypomania symptoms, which are important for distinguishing between a diagnosis of bipolar and unipolar depression. Clinicians will also want to find out if you have experienced any symptoms of psychosis, such as hallucinations. While psychotic symptoms can occur in other mental health disorders, its also a feature that can help distinguish between bipolar disorder and depression. Bipolar Disorder With Mixed Features Follow-Up Your doctor or mental health professional may want you to try mood charting to help keep track of your symptoms. This practice can be especially helpful for detecting episodes of hypomania and tracking the frequency of mood swings. You may be asked to keep a log of your mood after starting an antidepressant. If you develop new symptoms (such as mania) or worsening symptoms after starting these medications, it may indicate that you have bipolar disorder rather than depression. Staying in contact with your mental health care team while you are in the process of being diagnosed or starting treatment is important, especially if you are trying medications. In some cases, antidepressants can make symptoms of depression worse. If you are under the age of 25, the risk of suicidal thoughts can increaseâ€"which is why antidepressants have a black box warning from the FDA. If you, or your loved ones, notice a change in your behavior that is worrisome, talk to your doctor or psychiatrist. They may decide you need another type of treatment. Do not stop or take less of the antidepressant you have been prescribed unless you are being supervised by your doctor or psychiatrist. If you want to stop taking a medication or switch to a new prescription, ask your doctor how to safely reduce your dose to avoid withdrawal. A Word From Verywell Even when a doctor or mental health professional is thorough in assessing your symptoms and history, misdiagnosis can still happen. You can help by being as accurate and detailed as you can when reporting your symptoms to a clinician. If the diagnosis you have been given doesnt feel like the right fit, its important that you express these concerns to your health care team. It may help to be assessed by another practitioner. Your mental health and well-being depend on receiving an accurate diagnosis and having access to the treatment that best suits your needs. How to Explain Bipolar Disorder to Loved Ones

Friday, May 22, 2020

Exploring Perceptions of Parents on Head Teachers’...

Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol 3, No 13, 2012 www.iiste.org Exploring Perceptions of Parents on Head Teachers’ Financial Management Skills in Public Primary Schools in Tanzania 1. 2. Juma Saidi Mwinjuma1* Roselan Bin Baki2 Assistant Lecturer University of Dodoma, Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Management and Policy Studies, Currently Pursuing PhD in Educational Administration, University Putra Malaysia Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Educational studies, University Putra Malaysia *E-mail of the corresponding author: saijumwi@yahoo.co.uk Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the observations of parents on head teachers’ financial management skills in public†¦show more content†¦The contributing factor might therefore be ineffective management of school finance. Direct financial support to primary schools is a new observable fact in Tanzanian context. Little has been done as regards to how financial records are kept at school level, specifically capitation grants and the mechanisms through which the funds are used. Reviews from government reports indicate that in some schools, the funds were not fully utilized to serve the purpose in relation to centrally determined plans to attain the intended goals (REPOA and URT, 2004; URT, 2003). This issue is significant because there is relationship between the way 74 Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol 3, No 13, 2012 www.iiste.org financial records are kept and appropriate procurement of educational resources. Sample of studies on primary school financing studies such as Financial Decentralization (Komba, 2003; Dachi, 1994), Management of Education Institutions (Ndabise, 1992) and other studies on primary schools in Tanzania have not explored stakeholders’ perspectives on the manner head teachers manage school finances in public primary schools. This paper attempted to investigate

Thursday, May 7, 2020

How the Media Distorts Male Self-Perception Essay

How the Media Distorts Male Self-Perception Women are insecure. They constantly diet and scrutinize their bodies. They fall victims to the anorexically thin models appearing in the media. Why do men have it so easy? For years these questions are what women asked themselves. In a world where appearance is everything, women have been the main source of all the hype concerning the image and body. Advertisements have been criticized for years about putting the pressures of the â€Å"perfect† body into the heads of millions of women. Up until a few years ago, it was believed that only women had the eyes of society on them. Now the scales are balancing. More men are beginning to feel pressured, by the same society, to†¦show more content†¦This transformation exhibits how society changed in its perspective on physical appearance. This marked the beginning of men’s desire for what women had been calling the â€Å"perfect† body. Before World War II, money was not lavishly spent on the perfection of the body (Luciano 11). After the return of the soldiers, men had more money as women retained their postwar jobs. With women making substantially larger paychecks, men had the ability to spend more time and money to make themselves look like the models displayed in the media. With the new advertisements by Calvin Klein, such as the Mark Wahlberg, also known as Marky Mark, steamy ads for men’s briefs, the appearance of male bodies has intensified (Luciano 112). More and more men, now with the monetary means of looking good, are trying to achieve perfection with their bodies. They want to have the same bodies as those shown in the advertisements and, at times, will not stop until they have reached that goal (Grogan 95). As exposure to the male body expands, the demand for â€Å"chiseled† bodies greatens. In recent years, the number of memberships and frequency of visits to health clubs has increased (Luciano 3). 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Particularly, the superhero genre absorbs the ideals we strive towards and regurgitates them in an extreme and unrealisticRead MoreThe Representation of Young Black Men in the Media News1028 Words   |  4 PagesYOUNG BLACK MEN IN THE MEDIA (NEWS) We live in a media saturated environment where everything we know and what we consider to be important is often based on stories produced and displayed to us by the media, Brooks and Hebert (2006). Much of what we know and care about is based on the images, symbols and narratives in radio, television, film, music and other media systems. How individuals construct their social identities, how they come to understand what it means to be male, female, Black, WhiteRead MoreThe Bluest Eyes By Toni Morrison951 Words   |  4 PagesSociety’s perception of women is based on certain characteristics; Toni Morrison demonstrates this through her characters. Claudia, the youngest character, represents innocence that is conflicted between her own sensible judgment and what is expected of her. Pauline internalizes expectations, and lives accordingly, but lacks self-identity. Having no sense of self she finds herself seeking validation from those who should not affect her. The Bluest Eyes b y Toni Morrison focuses on the hardships thatRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effects On Society1240 Words   |  5 Pagesenhanced to appear to be exceptionally more flawless than they actually are. The standard of body shape that the media presents influences how people view themselves, and can possibly lead to long term health issues. The â€Å"perfect body† is most commonly viewed as a thinner figure with a defined waist. No one ever said that women were made to fit into this mold of the perfect body. The social media has created a standard of beauty that consists of the â€Å"perfect body†. Most famous people fit into this standard

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

How Did 9/11 Bring People Together Free Essays

How did the 9/11 bring people together? Or Did the 9/11 bring people together? The 9/11 was a very significant event and brought many people together in many different ways. In circumstances of extreme stress we hear moving accounts of people going out of their way to help each other. Studies show that acute stress can lead to greater cooperative, social and friendly behaviour, even in men. We will write a custom essay sample on How Did 9/11 Bring People Together or any similar topic only for you Order Now This more positive reaction can help the human connections that occurred during the time of crisis associated with the 9/11. Social connections are particularly important under stress because stress naturally leads so a sense of vulnerability and loss of control, this is an example of why the people of not only America, but the world came together through this tormenting time to support one another. The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks launched upon the United States in New York and Washington D. C area by an Islamic terrorist group, al-Qaeda. On the morning of September 11, 2001, al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four passenger jets. American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 crashed into the North and South towers of the World Trade Centre as suicide attacks. Both towers collapsed and debris led to the partial collapse of all other buildings in the New York World Trade Centre. The third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon, which was the headquarters of the United States Department of Defence. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was targeted at the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C. , but crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania after its passengers fought back against the al-Qaeda terrorists. Almost 3000 people died in the 9/11 attacks. An example of the 9/11 bringing people together is the cooperation of different religious groups. Churches that typically held services only on Sundays opened their doors on the Tuesday of the attacks and held them open for some following days and for a short time attendance in churches and other houses of worship skyrocketed. Members of religious groups met together and tried to understand each other’s beliefs to help one another. A decade later, a group of religious leaders representing the Christian, Islamic and Jewish faiths met to plan a special interfaith service for the 10th anniversary of the 9/11. The service included prayers, music, Scripture and short messages from participants. The organisers went to great lengths to celebrate religious diversity and to make sure readings and prayers are as universal as possible. Deidre Gordon, a member of the Islamic centre reinforced the idea of the 9/11 bringing people together. â€Å"It’s a chance to recognize beneath all this diversity, we have a lot we share. † We hear often hear moving stories of strangers coming together to help save each other from the burning buildings, one of which I came across was this; â€Å"Today, after a 72 hour shift at the fire station, a woman ran up to me at the grocery store and gave me a hug. When I tensed up, she realized I didn’t recognise her. She let go with tears of joy in her eyes and said, â€Å"On 9-11-2001, you carried me out of the World Trade Centre. † As you can see the 9/11 did bring people together, 12 years ago, President George W. Bush proclaimed, â€Å"America is united. † The production of American flags surged and the flags soared, and America really was united. America mourned together, raged together and resolved together. They reached out to others in a way most didn’t do previously. How to cite How Did 9/11 Bring People Together, Essays

Monday, April 27, 2020

Symbolism In The Crysanthemums Essays - The Chrysanthemums

Symbolism In The Crysanthemums Symbolism in The Chrysanthemums At first glance John Steinback's The Chrysanthemums' seems to be a story of a woman whose niche is in the garden. Upon deeper inspection, the story reveals strong symbolisms of children, vulnerability, and connection--being the most important, of the main character. Elisa Allen is the main character who is at her strongest and most proud in the garden and weakened when she becomes vulnerable and loses her connection to the outer world. Elisa shows a new aura of confidence when she makes this connection to a peddler, who also is the cause of her realization of reality and her crying. The chrysanthemums symbolize Elisas children. She tends her garden and handles the chrysanthemums with love and care, just as she would handle her own children. Elisa is protective of her flowers and places a fence around them; she makes sure that no aphids, no sowbugs or snails or cutworms are t here. Her terrier fingers destroyed such pests before they could get started ( 221). These pests represent something that harms the flowers, and she removes them before they can harm her children. The chrysanthemums are symbolic of her children, and she is very proud of them. She is happy and pleased by her ability to nurture the chrysanthemums as she would her children. Elisa's vulnerability is shown through her experience with the peddler shows an interest in the chrysanthemums when he describes them as a quick puff of colored smoke (223). By admiring the chrysanthemums, he figuratively admires Elisa Allen. The peddler gives Elisa a connection that she can't do with anyone else. By giving him the pot to put the chrysanthemum seedlings in, she gives him the symbol of her inner-self. She begins to feel hope as the peddler leaves. She dresses up nice and prepares for her night out with her husband. This preparation process symbolizes that she is preparing for a change in her life. Her washing and dressing is symbolic of her transition. Tearing off her soiled clothes and flinging them into the corner, she scrubbed herself with a little block of pumice, legs and thighs, loins and chest and arms, until her skin was scratched and red. This is symbolic of Elisa coming out of her old being, releasing a newness she had become to know. She tightened her stomach and threw out her chestShe put on her newest under-clothing and her nicest stocking and the dress which was the symbol of her prettiness. She worked carefully on her hair, penciled her eyebrows and rouged her lips. All of this is brought about because one man took interest in her private pleasure-the chrysanthemums. Her connection with the peddler has made her come out of the fence that she is so used to being inside of. She is free and she likes it. Elisa has seemed to undergo a complete metamorphosis from being an unsocial housewife to a confident woman when she makes this connection. She boasts, I am strong. I never knew before how strong. Unfortunately, at the conclusion of Steinbeck's short story, Steinbeck has her fall right back into the rut she so despised. When she realized that the peddler had dumped out the seeds and soil, and she comes back to reality and turned up her coat collar so her husband could not see that she was crying weakly-like an old woman. She is crushed and all that she had gained that day was taken away. This story expresses how easy it is for someone's hopes and confidence can be crushed if it is given into the wrong person's hands. The title The Chrysanthemums is used to point out that Elisa's chrysanthemums are an image of her. The image reflects how she feels towards children through her flowers, what her vulnerabilities are, and how she uses them to make connections. Elisa accomplished what she always wanted, but in the end a careless peddler took that away. She returned to being her old self, the self that lived within her own garden and fence. Bibliography Works Cited Steinback, John. The Chrysanthemums. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Eds. X. J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia. 8th ed. New York: Longman, 2002. 245-253. English Essays

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Astral Case Study Essays

Astral Case Study Essays Astral Case Study Essay Astral Case Study Essay Essay Topic: The Healers Introduction? This instance gives a good? avor of the challenges of a general director. in peculiar when 1 is new to the occupation. The instance explores the parachuting in of Sarah Conner. a venture-capitalist ( BLL. 60 % proprietor of Astral ) employee. to take over the running of Astral ( North America ) following the sudden decease of its long-time president ( Maxwell ) . Astral is largely a maker of Cadmium records for other labels. though Maxwell has expanded its ain recording concern ( 10 % of grosss ) across a scope of musical genres. Astral has established a name for quality and invention. but generallyavailable engineering has become so dependable that quality no longer truly serves as a discriminator in the industry. The? rst intent of instance surveies is developing a better apprehension through larning to use appropriate and diverse tools/concepts taking to better replies increasing your chance of success. With the information provided brand sure you 1. province the facts . 2. provide reading of these facts ( besides through usage of constructs ) . and so 3. conclude. The latter two stairss are frequently losing in instance survey studies. Besides. construction is cardinal. Some narrative is non a job. narrative without construction de? nitely is a job! ? ? De? ne the Context? ? De? ning the context is non synonymous to supplying a sum-up of the instance survey. Based on what you have read province. interpret and draw decisions. If you province the industry of Compact Discs is no longer differentiated but monetary value is going the chief competition issue. you need to bespeak why this is relevant and what this implies ( like: graduated table is of enormous importance in this state of affairs and if Astral does non? nd another manner to distinguish itself. like developing the DVD. from rivals its hereafter will look instead inexorable ) . If you province Astral’s formation of scheme resembles that of the entrepreneurial school residing in the head of the leader. you need to interpret this into. Stellar footings ( the scheme of Astral NA resided and was executed in the caput of sir Max ) and conclude what consequences this has for Conner ( really few people in Astral NA will be able to make up ones mind harmonizing to this scheme because that is what sir Max did ) . If you province that sir Max resembled the creative person type of a director. you need to reason what consequences this has/d for Astral’s operations: short on inside informations and followthrough which means that Conner is bound to? nd a batch of loose terminals ( like the missive from Yurbank dating July 1st. seemingly non acted upon ) . Top quality. high tech merchandise means high investing demands. instead high entry barriers. high hazard of replacements. etc and this in bend means that one can easy miss’ possible rivals ; Entrepreneurial leader means low authorization of employees and the degree of political power depends on propinquity to the leader ; A Venture Capitalist as cardinal stock holder means a potentially stronger focal point on shorter term return ; A female leader in a paternalistic working environment means Conner has some excess hurdlings to take and booby traps to avoid ; A fabrication company like Astral means coordination by standardisation of work procedures connoting a instead large planning and quality direction section ; A growing scheme means high dependence on recognition lines to procure hard currency to procure growing ; etc. ? ? ? 26. Rue Maunoir | 1207 Geneve | Switzerland | World Wide Web. sustineo. org | [ electronic mail protected ]/*org | +41 79 822 3546 De? ne the Key Issues or Problems? Cases are semi-structured jobs. and job de? nition accomplishments are one of the chief acquisition merchandises of perennial instance survey analysis. Stating the many weak signals and symptoms in a instance survey without indicating to bigger issues and/or jobs does non assist. What is truly traveling on in this instance survey and why did it go on this manner? Output of this measure should be a clear de? nition of the cardinal issues or jobs at manus backed up with the informations available ( facts ) added with premises made. The type of Leadership and scheme formation of Astral is one of the cardinal issues as it will be impossible for Conner to retroflex this ; This has led to an under-empowered and under-developed direction ( i. e. Conner will hold a difficult clip to? nd Alliess ) and a batch of urgent and some of import affairs to cover with non limited to the memos found on Conner’s desk ( there will be many other affairs which were in sir Max’s caput ) . For Conner the cardinal issue will be to capture the chief issues at manus ( direction control. ? nancial form. menaces. scheme ) being able to boil these down to a study to be produced in 2 hebdomads while necessitating to be in England to link to the other major stockholder and pater familias and procuring hard currency to go on operations. ? ? Use Concepts? Even though common sense and intuition are of import in direction and scheme it is cardinal to use different concern constructs ( both prescriptive and descriptive ) in order to increase your apprehension of the issues in your context ( and to prove the pertinence of the constructs studied ) . Management Control: In Wrapp’s Good directors don’t make policy decisions a metaphor is used depicting a director sitting in a watercourse: operating jobs? oat by. the director rapidly examines each 1. hangs onto the good 1s and after roll uping a few Begins to see ways in which they might associate. be perceived in the power construction. and travel the organisation toward its aims. In some ways this metaphor rhenium? ects the existent state of affairs of Conner. The many memo’s indicating to operating ( and scheme ) jobs could be perceived as chances to larn to understand Astral. Successful executives have a endowment for maintaining good informed ( or going wellinformed for Conner ) about a broad scope of operating determinations being made at different degrees in the company. Effective executives know how to concentrate their clip and energy on comparatively few issues. This is an issue for Conner as she is surrounded by people who are looking to her for every move. Successful executives play the power game. They recognize the? rm’s power construction and work though corridors of comparative indifference. Conner needs to acquire a appreciation on the new power construction developing in this vacuity ( and maintain a close oculus on Wallace Alexander ) . Successful executives besides cultivate an art of impreciseness. fulfilling their organisations so that they have a sense of way while avoiding public committedness to speci? hundred aims. Because Conner does non hold the elaborate apprehension of the concern as a sir Max would hold this art of impreciseness will proof to be of import. Effective executives muddle with a intent. acknowledging that it is best to seek for partial plans and modest advancement toward ends. patching together parts of different proposals. This requires wide-ranging involvements and he ability to see how things relate. Peter Senge’s The Leader’s New Work: Building Learning Organizations could be helpful in supplying penetrations for Conner as she will necessitate to assist Astral to larn. She needs to assist the directors to see the system ; seeing the systems that control events. The directors can no longer rely on sir Max to hold on the beginning of jobs. Conner is a interior decorator planing the regulating thoughts of intent. vision. and nucleus values ; of the policies. schemes. and structures to interpret steering thoughts into concern determinations ; and the creative activity of effectual acquisition procedures. Astral Case Study 2? ? ? ? ?  © Dr. Lammert Vrieling / 2013? ? ? Conner is a teacher assisting people get more penetration. It includes assisting them acquire a better image of their mental theoretical accounts and to believe consistently. Conner is a steward ; Stewardship applies to both the people led and the intent that underlies the endeavor. This would be the biggest alteration in an organisation similar Astral as this is the antonym of a centralist bossy theoretical account. It remains a inquiry whether a steward function would work within Astral at the minute. However. the functions of interior decorator and instructor seem rather appropriate. For person like Conner ( non a music specializer. much younger than sir Max and female ) the leading attack needs to be rather different without questioning sir Max’s attack or seting excessively much duty on the directors excessively fast. Huy’s In congratulations of Middle Managers states in-between directors are important for a company: they are the enterprisers ( able and willing to recognize new concern thoughts ) . they are communicators of the demands for alteration. they are the healers making a clime of reassurance. and they are tight rope creative persons supplying business as usual’ of import in times of alteration. This could be a helpful position for Conner as she needs to acquire her center directors to act like this. ( Financial ) Shape of the Company: To ease this rating exercising Rumelt’s four trials of scheme ( consistence. consonant rhyme. advantage. and feasibleness ) could assist. There does non look to be issues of consistence: the ( formulated ) scheme seems to be rather straightforward and does non incorporate open via medias. Consonance exists when the basic mission or range of the? rm matches its environment over clip ; the? rm will so hold a generic scheme. In Astral’s instance this is distinction ( this might return to be leading if new distinction possibilities remain undeveloped. Competitive advantage can usually be traced to one of three roots: ( 1 ) superior resources ; ( 2 ) superior accomplishments ; or ( 3 ) superior place. In the past competitory advantage was based on all three ; today this is less the instance. The result of the current picture compaction onto disc ( DVD ) could make a new competitory advantage. The trial of feasibleness asks whether the scheme can be attempted within the physical. homo. and? nancial resources available. Astral is running up against barriers in footings of being able to? nance its growing. Phahalad and Hamel’s strategic purpose casts a visible radiation on the earlier yearss of Astral and how it was founded. Today there is non a clear strategic purpose steering Astral to regenerate planetary market leading. After Conner has led Astral into smoother sailing this would go a point of action. Menaces: Andrews in the construct of corporate strategy clari? es what the? rm might make. i. e. . placing the menaces and chances in the environment. Second is what the? rm can make. i. e. . measuring the? rm’s strengths and failings. Third is what the? rm wants to make. i. e. . sing the personal values of the top direction. Last. there is what the? rm should make. i. e. . the ethical facets of strategizing. Because Astral comes from an entrepreneurial scheme position ( scheme shacking in the caput of the enterpriser ) it should likely switch to a more plan-based position stressing deliberation and preparation from a design school perspective as Conner will be the CEO to plan this ( instead than a particular planning section in the planning school ) . Because Astral has been successful in the yesteryear separating itself from the competition through invention a competences/resource-based analysis of Astral might be bene? cial supplying penetration in possible new beginnings of competitory advantage. Because Astral has lost ( some of ) its competitory advantage a? ve forces analysis of its current place might be appropriate. The earnestness of the menace of entry depends on the barriers present and the reaction from incumbent rivals. Astral and the industry at big has several beginnings of barriers to entry: economic systems of graduated table. merchandise distinction. capital demands. cost advantages independent of graduated table. and entree to distribution channels. Suppliers have dickering power by raising monetary values or cut downing quality and the consumer is demanding of all time lower monetary values. higher quality and more service. Substitutes limit the pro? t potency of an industry by puting Astral Case Study 3? ? ? ? ? ? ?  © Dr. Lammert Vrieling / 2013 a ceiling on monetary values. Even though – at the clip – Cadmiums were the cardinal merchandise higher monetary values would open the door for replacements. There is besides intra-industry competition indicated by monetary value competition and new service offering. Rivalry is intensi? erectile dysfunction by approximately tantamount rivals. slow industry growing. and deficiency of distinction. The industry is traveling towards cost leading as the dominant generic scheme. ? Barney’s looking inside for competitory advantage provides the analysis tools for a resource-based analysis mentioned above. The writer identi? es four cardinal standards inquiries that this internally-oriented analysis must turn to: value creative activity ( resources and capablenesss are valuable merely when they exploit chances or extenuate menaces ) ; rarity ( capablenesss or resources that are valuable but common will be indispensable in leting a? Rm to accomplish para. but non to out-compete. its challengers ) ; imitability ( resources and capablenesss that are valuable and rare will confabulate long-run advantage if challengers? nd it dif? cult to either extra or replacement for these resources and capablenesss ) ; ? nally. there is the inquiry of organisation ( valuable. rare. and hard-to-imitate resources will confabulate superior long-run pro? tability depending on how good they are orchestrated into a coherent system. Astral does non hold a sustainable competitory advantage at the minute. it does make value because of its high quality ( but this is non sustainable ) . Scheme: Mintzberg’s generic concern schemes provide more insight into the type of generic scheme Astral could take. Step 1 is to turn up the nucleus concern in the industry ( upstream. midstream. or downstream ) : Astral is a midstream concern pulling a assortment of inputs into a individual production procedure out of which? ows the merchandise to a assortment of users. Step 2 is separating the nucleus concern – opening up the nucleus concern to separate the features that enable an organisation to accomplish competitory advantage and so to last in its ain context. We distinguish between Input sourcing schemes ( procurance. enlisting. ? nancing ) . throughput processing schemes ( procedure development. fiction. assembly. merchandise research. merchandise development ) . end product bringing schemes ( distribution. publicity. pricing. gross revenues. service ) and back uping schemes ( legal. control. preparation ) . Stellar focal points chiefly on throughput processing schemes and – to a lesser extent – end product bringing schemes indicating to a distinction scheme ( with low cost ) . Initially Astral focussed on design distinction and quality distinction. At the minute it still has ( some ) quality distinction and seeking to tilt on support distinction. Measure 3 is lucubrating the nucleus concern by develop its merchandise offering within the concern. developing the market via new sections. new channels or new geographical countries or force the same merchandises more smartly through the same markets: diversi? cation ( ? ) . merchandise development ( better CD’s ) . market development ( new CD labels ) . incursion. Step 4 is widening the nucleus concern by concatenation integrating ( widening operation downstream or upstream ) including rosin makers ( upstream ) or music labels ( downstream ) . diversi? cation schemes ( entry in some concern non in the same concatenation of operations ) . schemes of entry or control. or backdown schemes. Finally. Step 5 is re-conceiving the nucleus concern ( Es ) through concern rede? nition scheme. concern recombination schemes or nucleus resettlement schemes. At the minute this might non be an immediate option for Astral. but with the cognition of today one could conceive of a resettlement scheme towards ( digital ) music. or a rede? nition scheme ( digital storage devices ) . ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  © Dr. Lammert Vrieling / 2013 4 Astral Case Study Provide Alternative Courses of Action? ? ? ? ? Based on above analysis and understanding what should be done following? What are the true options at manus and when implemented what will be the expected consequence ( i. e. will all issues be resolved or will at that place be staying or new issues/problems ) ? What options does Conner hold in the short-run? A none-negotiable is to go to to the different memo’s and bring forth a selection/decision mechanism. Conner needs to to the full understand Astral’s current scheme. supply a robust rating in footings of scheme rating ( consistence. consonant rhyme. competitory advantage and feasibleness ) . positioning. internal resource-base and options of generic schemes. Conner needs to suggest a manner frontward ( a 6-month program within 2 hebdomads and an 18month program at the terminal of the month ) . Conner can suggest to go on the current scheme every bit much as possible procuring a? nancial injection by BLL. reconstituting the company for improved deputation ; stop the current scheme and concentrate on rationalisation traveling to a low cost scheme ( might be dif? cult as Astral is non built on this premiss ) ; Re-focus the current scheme altering its formation procedure. and re-emphasising the distinction scheme and beef uping competitory advantage ( a bundling scheme possibly: music. picture. videodisk ) ; issue scheme: rationalisation. cleaning up. reorganizing and so selling the company. Choose a Course of Action? Choose a class of action from the alternate classs of action bespeaking why ( explicitly sing and rejecting the other alternate classs of action ) . Indicate both hard. quantitive informations and your soft qualitative feelings about each class of action. For Conner we need a list of pending actions/decisions and a logical thinking as to which action/decision should be taking. at what clip and by whom. ? Develop an Action Plan? Develop an action program by which the desired action may be achieved or implemented within the context. and bespeak who should make what. when and how. Besides provide a process to measure your class of action of pick based on its existent impact. Below you’ll? nd a good illustration of a hands-on action list – by Ms. Maridali Alicea. Date: August 24th August 24th Recommendation: Keep meeting to inform staff of alterations ( deputation. and duties ) Brief him on difference in direction attack. Capable: Staff Meeting with Astral Toppers Meeting with Assistant ( Wallace ) MBA pupil visit Fox Hunt Production run out of specs BLL spouses visit Delinquent history Billboard Magazine interview Safety Day plans Unauthorized Return of Merchandise August 24th Reschedule September 7th Probably necessitate to travel August 25th Operations section will manage ( Bart O’Reilly ) – Reminder the quality of our merchandise is one of the companies competencies September 7th. Assistant can set up adjustments August 26th Finance section – recommend immediate payment to forestall holds in shipment ASAP this hebdomad Reschedule for more appropriate clip Manufacturing section will manage ( Bart O’Reilly ) – Social concerns must be considered Marketing and Gross saless section will manage ( G. Scott Herron )  © Dr. Lammert Vrieling / 2013 5 Astral Case Study Renewal of Revolving Credit EPA Inspection: Fish putting to death Contract Negotiations Safety Day plans concerns EPA Inspection: legal advocate Proposal for New Plastic Packaging August 25th Sarah Conner will manage – reexamine capital construction Sarah Conner will manage. emphasize the importance of ecology conformity Selling and Gross saless section will manage ( G. Scott Herron ) . Manufacturing section will manage ( Bart O’Reilly ) – Social concerns must be considered Sarah Conner will manage. emphasize the importance of ecology conformity Manufacturing section ( Bart O’Reilly ) and Marketing and Gross saless section ( G. Scott Herron ) will manage – see the blessing for New packaging equipment Manufacturing section ( Bart O’Reilly ) and Marketing and Gross saless section ( G. Scott Herron ) will manage – see the proposal for New Plastic Packaging Sarah Conner will manage – reexamine capital construction Sarah Conner will manage – importance to upcoming audit HR section. ( Sandy Bien-Fait ) will manage. Operations section will manage ( Bart O’Reilly ) Sarah Conner will manage – see the impact of engineering invention. but besides current? nancial restrictions Sarah Conner will manage – due to? nancial restrictions unable to follow hard currency colony Approval of New Packaging Equipment. Renewal of Revolving Credit Lawsuit Hiring CD Rot Project Future Vision Lawsuit Employee Reprimand Audit Planning Meeting Equipment Maintenance Signing party and concert Anonymous note – employee behavior Capital Structure Summary August 24th HR section ( Sandy Bien-Fait ) will manage. September 10th Sarah Conner will manage – must be up to day of the month with all issues relevant to cases. environmental concerns. and CD Rot August 26th Finance section – remind of environmental concerns and hazards Marketing and Gross saless section will manage ( G. Scott Herron ) HR section ( Sandy Bien-Fait ) will manage. Sarah Conner will manage  © Dr. Lammert Vrieling / 2013 6 Astral Case Study.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Biography of Andrew Jackson, 7th U.S. President

Biography of Andrew Jackson, 7th U.S. President Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767–June 8, 1845 and known as Old Hickory), was the son of Irish immigrants and a soldier, a lawyer, and a legislator who became the seventh president of the United States. Known as the first citizen-president, Jackson was the first non-elite man to hold the office. Fast Facts: Andrew Jackson Known For: 7th U.S. President (1829–1837)Born: March 15, 1767 near Twelve Mile Creek on the border between North and South CarolinaParents: Irish immigrants Andrew Jackson and his wife Elizabeth Hutchinson  Died: June 8, 1845 in The Hermitage, Nashville, TennesseeSpouse: Rachel DonelsonAdopted Children: Andrew Jackson, Jr., Lyncoya, and Andrew Jackson Hutchings Early Life Andrew Jackson was born on March 15, 1767, in the Waxhaw community on Twelve Mile Creek on the border of North and South Carolina. He was the third child, and the first one born in the Americas, of his Irish immigrant parents, linen weavers Andrew and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson. His father died unexpectedly before he was born- some stories say he was crushed by a falling tree- and his mother raised he and his two brothers by herself. The Waxhaw community was made up of Scots-Irish settlers and five of Elizabeths married sisters lived nearby, so Elizabeth and her sons moved in with her sister Janes husband James Crawford, and she helped raise Janes eight children. All three of the Jackson boys took part in the American Revolution. Andrews older brother Hugh died of exposure after the Battle of Stono Ferry in 1779. Robert and Andrew witnessed the Battle of Hanging Rock and were captured by the British, catching smallpox while in Camden jail. Learning of their capture, Elizabeth made the trip to Camden and arranged for their release in exchange for some captured British soldiers. Robert died and while Andrew laid in a delirium, Elizabeth went to visit quarantined Waxhaw community members on board a ship in Charleston harbor. She contracted cholera and died. Andrew returned to Waxhaw but no longer got along with his relatives. He was a bit wild, burned through an inheritance, and then left Waxhaw for Salisbury, North Carolina in 1784. There, he studied law with other attorneys and qualified for the bar in 1787. He was appointed public prosecutor in middle Tennessee in 1788, and on the way there, fought his first duel and bought his first slave, a woman not much older than himself. Marriage and Family Jackson became a leading citizen in Nashville and married Rachel Donelson in 1791, who had previously been married. In 1793, the couple learned that her divorce was not yet final, so they repeated their vows again. The charge of bigamy would come to haunt them while Jackson was campaigning for president, and he blamed his opponents for causing the stress leading to her death in 1828. Together the Jacksons had no children, but they adopted three: Andrew Jackson Jr. (the son of Rachels brother Severn Donelson), Lyncoya (1811–1828), a Creek Indian orphan adopted by Jackson after the Battle of Tallushatchee, and Andrew Jackson Hutchings (1812–1841), the grandson of Rachels sister. The couple also took guardianship of several other related and unrelated children, some of whom only lived with them a short while. Legal and Military Career Andrew Jackson was a lawyer in North Carolina and then Tennessee. In 1796, he served at the convention that created the Tennessee Constitution. He was elected in 1796 as Tennessees first U.S. representative and then as a U.S. senator in 1797, from which he resigned after eight months. From 1798–1804, he was a justice on the Tennessee Supreme Court. During his period as a justice, he managed his credit, bought slaves and a new parcel of land, and built The Hermitage, where he would live for most of his life. During the War of 1812, Jackson served as the major general of the Tennessee Volunteers. He led his troops to victory in March 1814 against the Creek Indians at Horseshoe Bend. In May 1814 he was made major general of the Army, and on January 8, 1815, he defeated the British in New Orleans for which he was lauded as a war hero. Jackson also served in the 1st Seminole War (1817–1819), during which he overthrew the Spanish governor in Florida. After serving in the military and being the military governor of Florida in 1821, Jackson served in the Senate again from 1823–1825. Running for President In 1824, Jackson ran for president against John Quincy Adams. He won the popular vote but the lack of an electoral majority resulted in the election for Adams being decided in the House. The choice of Adams was popularly known as the corrupt bargain, an undercover deal giving the office to Adams in exchange for Henry Clay becoming secretary of state. The backlash from this election split the Democratic-Republican Party in two. The new Democratic party renominated Jackson to run for president in 1825, three years before the next election, with John C. Calhoun as his running mate. Jackson and Calhoun ran against incumbent John Quincy Adams of the new National Republican Party, a campaign that was less about issues and more about the candidates themselves: the election was characterized as the triumph of the common man over the elites. Jackson became the seventh U.S. president with 54 percent of the popular vote and 178 out of 261 electoral votes. The 1832 presidential election was the first to use National Party Conventions. Jackson ran again as the incumbent with Martin Van Buren as his running mate. His opponent was Henry Clay, whose ticket included vice presidential nominee John Sergeant. The main campaign issue was the Bank of the United States, Jacksons use of the spoils system, and his use of the veto. Jackson was called King Andrew I by his opposition, but he still won 55 percent of the popular vote and 219 out of 286 electoral votes. Events and Accomplishments Jackson was an active executive who vetoed more bills than all previous presidents. He believed in rewarding loyalty and appealing to the masses. He relied on an informal group of advisors called the Kitchen Cabinet to set policy instead of his real cabinet. During Jacksons presidency, sectional issues began to arise. Many southern states, upset over tariffs, wished to preserve states rights to overrule the federal government and when Jackson signed a moderate tariff in 1932, South Carolina felt it had the right through nullification (the belief that a state could rule something unconstitutional) to ignore it. Jackson stood strong against South Carolina, ready to use the military if necessary to enforce the tariff. In 1833, a compromise tariff was enacted that helped mollify the sectional differences for a time. In 1832, Jackson vetoed the Second Bank of the United States charter. He believed the government could not constitutionally create such a bank and that it favored the wealthy over the common people. This action led to federal money being put into state banks, which then loaned it out freely, leading to inflation. Jackson stopped the easy credit by requiring all land purchases to be made in gold or silver- a decision that would have consequences in 1837. Jackson supported Georgias expulsion of the Indians from their land to reservations in the west. He used the Indian Removal Act of 1830 to force them to move, even discounting the Supreme Court ruling in Worcester v. Georgia (1832) that said they could not be forced to move. From 1838–1839, troops led over 15,000 Cherokees from Georgia in a devastating march called the Trail of Tears. Jackson survived an assassination attempt in 1835 when the two derringers pointed at him didnt fire. The gunman, Richard Lawrence, was found not guilty of the attempt by reason of insanity. Death and Legacy Andrew Jackson returned to his home, the Hermitage, near Nashville, Tennessee. He stayed active politically until his death there on June 8, 1845. Andrew Jackson is considered by some as one of the United States greatest presidents. He was the first citizen-president representing the common man who believed strongly in preserving the union and in keeping too much power out of the hands of the wealthy. He was also the first president to truly embrace the powers of the presidency. Sources Cheathem, Mark. Andrew Jackson, Southerner. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press (2013).Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767–1821. New York: Harper Row (1979).Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom, 1822–1832. New York: Harper Row (1981).Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Democracy, 1833–1845. New York: Harper Row (1984).Wilentz, Sean. Andrew Jackson: The Seventh President, 1829–1837. New York: Henry Holt (2005).